Richard Sibbes was an English theologian. He is known as a Biblical exegete, and as a representative, with William Perkins and John Preston, of what has been called "main-line" Puritanism.


Cotton Mather (February 12, 1663 – February 13, 1728)
was a socially and politically influential Puritan minister, prolific author, and pamphleteer. Mather descended from colonial New England's two most influential families, Mather was the son of the noted Puritan divine Increase Mather (1639 – 1723) and the grandson of John Cotton and Richard Mather, both "Moses-like figures" during the exodus of English Puritans to America.


George Gillespie was a Scottish theologian. He was born at Kirkcaldy, where his father, John Gillespie, was parish minister, and studied at St. Andrews University as a "presbytery bursar". On graduating he became domestic chaplain to John Gordon, 1st Viscount Kenmure, and afterwards to John Kennedy, 6th Earl of Cassilis. His conscience did not permit him to accept the episcopal ordination which was at that time in Scotland an indispensable condition of induction to a parish.


William Tyndale was an English scholar who became a leading figure in Protestant reform in the years leading up to his execution. He is well known for his translation of the Bible into English. He was influenced by the work of Desiderius Erasmus, who made the Greek New Testament available in Europe, and by Martin Luther. Tyndale's translation was the first English Bible to draw directly from Hebrew and Greek texts, the first English one to take advantage of the printing press, and first of the new English Bibles of the Reformation. In 1530, Tyndale also wrote The Practyse of Prelates, opposing Henry VIII's divorce on the grounds that it contravened Scripture.


Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was the first and most prominent leader of a reform movement in sixteenth century Christianity, subsequently known as the
Protestant Reformation. Essentially, Luther sought to recover core New Testament teachings that he claimed had been obscured by corruption and worldly traditions of medieval Catholicism. In particular, Luther opposed the idea, popularized by certain indulgence-sellers of his day, that one could buy salvation through monetary donations to the Church. Ever against this, Luther held that human beings could be saved by faith alone (sola fides). He came to this understanding over the course of a long and tortuous personal struggle. Having resolved his inner conflicts by means of an "evangelical breakthrough," Luther began a public ministry that altered the course of Christianity and European history.

 



Martin Bucer
, Bucer also spelled Butzer (born November 11, 1491, Schlettstadt, Alsace—died February 28, 1551 ,England), Protestant Reformer, mediator, and liturgical scholar best known for his ceaseless attempts to make peace between conflicting reform groups. He influenced not only the development of Calvinism but also the liturgical development of the Anglican communion. De regno Christi is one of his most important works.


Born in France in 1509, theologian/ecclesiastical statesman John Calvin was Martin Luther's successor as the preeminent Protestant theologian. Calvin made a powerful impact on the fundamental doctrines of Protestantism, and is widely credited as the most important figure in the second generation of the Protestant Reformation. He died in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1564.


Thomas Watson was an English, Nonconformist, Puritan preacher and author. He was educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he was noted for remarkably intense study. In 1646 he commenced a sixteen-year pastorate at St. Stephen's, Walbrook. He showed strong Presbyterian views during the civil war, with, however, an attachment to the king, and in 1651 he was imprisoned briefly with some other ministers for his share in Christopher Love's plot to recall Charles II of England. He was released on 30 June 1652, and was formally reinstated as vicar of St. Stephen's Walbrook. He obtained great fame and popularity as a preacher until the Restoration, when he was ejected for Nonconformity. Watson continued to exercise his ministry privately as he found opportunity. Upon the Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 he obtained a license to preach at the great hall in Crosby House. After preaching there for several years, his health gave way, and he retired to Barnston, Essex, where he died suddenly while praying in secret. He was buried on 28 July 1686.

Moses

MO'SES (mo'zez). The deliverer, leader, lawgiver, and prophet of Israel. The name in Heb. is mosheh ("drawn out"), but the original is Egyptian ms', a "child," a "son," reflecting that Pharaoh's daughter simply named him "child". Along with God, it is the figure of Moses (Moshe) who dominates the Torah. Acting at God's behest, it is he who leads the Jews out of slavery, unleashes the Ten Plagues against Egypt, guides the freed slaves for forty years in the wilderness, carries down the law from Mount Sinai, and prepares the Jews to enter the land of Canaan. Moses is a great type of the Lord Jesus acting as Prophet, Priest and Judge.

 Calvin & Farrel

William Farel, was a French evangelist, and a founder of the Reformed Church in the cantons of Neuchâtel, Berne, Geneva, and Vaud in Switzerland. He is most often remembered for having persuaded John Calvin to remain in Geneva in 1536, and for persuading him to return there in 1541, after their expulsion in 1538. They influenced the government of Geneva to the point that it became the "Protestant Rome", where Protestants took refuge and non-Protestants were driven out. Together with Calvin, Farel worked to train missionary preachers who spread the Protestant cause to other countries, and especially to France.

Pierre Viret


Pierre Viret
(1511 – 4 May 1571) is often called the “Forgotten Reformer” of the Protestant Reformation. The Swiss born Viret was an extraordinary man and a model minister. He was a blend of gracious Christian character and remarkable theological insight and balance. His theology went beyond the abstract and touched life itself. From the authority of Scripture to the role of the magistrates, Viret made theology applicable to all of human existence. Viret’s works on apologetics, biblical law, ethics, economics, and political philosophy were influential during the times of the Reformation. His theological expertise in these realms is as timely in our modern era as it was in his.


Augustine

Augustine of Hippo, also known as Saint Augustine or Saint Austin, was an early Christian theologian whose writings were very influential in the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. He was bishop of Hippo Regius located in the Roman province of Africa. Writing during the Patristic Era, he is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers. Among his most important works are City of God and Confessions, which continue to be read widely today.


Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was the first and most prominent leader of a reform movement in sixteenth century Christianity, subsequently known as the
Protestant Reformation. Essentially, Luther sought to recover core New Testament teachings that he claimed had been obscured by corruption and worldly traditions of medieval Catholicism. In particular, Luther opposed the idea, popularized by certain indulgence-sellers of his day, that one could buy salvation through monetary donations to the Church. Ever against this, Luther held that human beings could be saved by faith alone (sola fides). He came to this understanding over the course of a long and tortuous personal struggle. Having resolved his inner conflicts by means of an "evangelical breakthrough," Luther began a public ministry that altered the course of Christianity and European history.


Born in France in 1509, theologian/ecclesiastical statesman John Calvin was Martin Luther's successor as the preeminent Protestant theologian. Calvin made a powerful impact on the fundamental doctrines of Protestantism, and is widely credited as the most important figure in the second generation of the Protestant Reformation. He died in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1564.

Samuel Rutherford

Samuel Rutherford was a Scottish Presbyterian theologian and author, and one of the Scottish Commissioners to the Westminster Assembly. Born in the village of Nisbet, Roxburghshire, in the Scottish Borders area of Scotland, Rutherford was educated at Jedburgh Grammar School and Edinburgh University, where he became in 1623 Regent of Humanity. In 1627 he was settled as minister of Anwoth in Galloway, from where he was banished to Aberdeen for nonconformity. On the re-establishment of Presbytery in 1638 he was made Professor of Divinity at St. Andrews. He was one of the Scottish Commissioners to the Westminster Assembly of Divines in London, and after his return to Scotland he became Rector of St. Mary's College at St. Andrews in 1651. Rutherford's political book Lex, Rex was written in response to John Maxwell's "Sacro-Sanctum Regus Majestas" and presented a theory of limited government and constitutionalism.